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In Germany, the pharmaceutical industry has always been cautious about making the big splash, and only a small part of the sales comes directly from generics, which accounted for only 0.3 percent of sales in 2008. But as more generics come on the market and their price lowers, a few companies hope that the trend to generics will grow even bigger.
In a study published on May 8, the World Health Organization estimated that nearly 3.5 billion people worldwide lack access to antibiotics or have inadequate access to a broad range of drugs. The UN agency said that as a result, the number of infections due to drug resistant would continue grow at a compound annual growth rate of around 9 percent over the next decade, according to its Global Drug Challenge (GDC).
GDC is the first study to assess potential impact of introducing new generic versions several important antibiotics on the global drug supply and demand. The study examined 10,894 studies on antibiotic use and demand published between 2001 2011 from different parts of the world including Buy digoxin online uk more than 3,700 in English and nearly 2,500 Chinese, which is commonly used as a research language.
The study's coauthor, Dr. David Salisbury, who studies global drug supply and demand at the Global Drug Challenge, said findings "reveal a worrying shift in the global drug market."
Antibiotics used in livestock production, like the one shown here, are used in food production and livestock are more likely to become contaminated than antibiotics in humans, the study found. Photo: W.J.C. HENRICKSON/FLICKR/ZUMA PRESS
While in many countries the proportion of antibiotic prescriptions has steadily increased over time, there has been no similar pattern in the global market. Salisbury called for countries to establish laws requiring prescribers follow quality and safety principles to develop national antibiotic quality assurance programs for the benefit of consumers worldwide.
Since the study was completed, European Food Safety Authority has updated its guidance on prescribing antibiotics in livestock, and it has recommended that farmers use appropriate antibiotics in the prevention and treatment of disease to prevent the spread of resistant pathogens.
"While the availability of new drugs is essential, we don't want to get ahead of the problem by simply encouraging use of more antibiotics," he said. "We are at a pivotal point in the history of medicine for humans and animals."
Drugs are essential to keep animals healthy produce feed and meat, though they can cause infections in humans. The most common use of antibiotics in the U.S. where can i buy cialis in the us involves routine use of the drug in animals to treat disease and infections caused by a bacterial infection known as MRSA, or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which can cause respiratory problems and rapidly develop resistance to common antibiotics.
In the United States, a handful of drugs, including macrolides (sold under brands such as Amoxicillin), sulfonamides (sold Claritin) and penicillins as Amoxicillin-Clavulanate) are among the most commonly prescribed antibiotics for livestock production, and researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health have linked consumption of meat from ruminant animals to an increased risk of antibiotic resistant bacteria.
The Johns Hopkins researchers showed, however, that the consumption of antibiotics by livestock is not the only source of antibiotic resistance in humans — they noted that an excess of antibiotics given to poultry and egg farms is also contributing to.
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